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HISTORY  

Read about Iranian History...

The Great Persian Empire (IRAN)

 
 

- PERSIAN VERSION


- IRAN BEFORE IRANIANS
- THE ARIANS
- THE MEDES
- THE ACHAEMENIANS
- CYRUS THE GREAT
- THE GREEKS
- THE PARTHIAN EMPIRE
- THE SASSANIANS
- ARAB CONQUEST
- THE ABBASSID CALIPHATES
- THE SAMANIDS
- THE TURKISH DYNASTIES
- MONGOL INVASIONS
- THE SAFAVIDS
- AFSHAR DYNASTY
- ZAND DYNASTY
- QAJAR DYNASTY
- PAHLAVI DYNASTY
- ISLAMIC REVOLUTION

   

The Persian Empire Map | 500 B.C.

 

PERSIA:

"The earliest evidence of humans in what is now Iran dates back about 100,000 years, when small hunter-gatherer groups formed a sparse population. From about 38,000 to about 12,000 years ago, there were various flint-working cultures in the area. By about 6000 BC, agricultural villages were located over much of the Iranian Plateau. However, most of the area did not progress into literate urban cultures, such as those of the Indus Valley or Mesopotamia. The exception was Elam, which-from about 2700 BC-had a federal government with checks and balances and a complicated system by which official power was inherited. The system lasted for more than 1,500 years before Elam was conquered by Babylon."
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The people inhabiting the region between Mesopotamia and the Indus are a proud and dynamic folk with a strong sense of their common heritage, even given that they derive from diverse sources. An Indo-European people (their name for themselves, "Irani", is simply the local pronunciation of "Aryan"), they have been a major civilization for very long time, and they have had a strong influence on the world at large, given their position as a vital link between East and West.

 

 

MEDES

Median names are followed by their Greek transcriptions, as those are generally better recognized.

Deioces

Kshatrita (Phraortes)

728-675

675-653


SCYTHIAN

Madius 653-625

 
MEDES

Uwakshatra (Cyaxares)

Ishtumegu (Astyages)

625-585

585-550


ACHAEMENID

As with the Medes, I give the much more widely recognized Greek transcriptions of these names in parentheses, where I have them available.

Kurush (Cyrus) II the Great

Kambujiya (Cambyses) II

Smerdis the Usurper

Darayavahush (Darius) I the Great

Xshayarsha (Xerxes) I the Great

Artabanes

Artaxshassa (Artaxerxes) I Longhand

Xshayarsha (Xerxes) II

Sogdianos

Darayavahush (Darius) II the Bastard

Artaxshassa (Artaxerxes) II the Mindful

Artaxshassa (Artaxerxes) III

Arsha (Arses)

Darayavahush (Darius) III

550-529

529-522

522

522-486

486-466

466-465

465-425

425-424

424-423

423-404

404-359

359-338

338-336

336-330

 

MACEDON

Alexander

Philip

Antigonus One-eye

330-323

323-316

316-312 d. 301

 


SELEUCID

Seleucus I

Antiochus I Soter

Antiochus II Theos

312-280

280-261

261-246



PARTHIA

Arsaces

Artabanus I

Priapatius

Phraates I

Mithridates I

Phraates II

Artabanus II

Mithridates II

Gotarzes I

Orodes I

Sanatruces

Phraates III

Mithridates III

Orodes II

Phraates IV

Tiridates II

Phraates IV (restored)

Tiridates II (restored)

Phraates IV (re-restored)

Phraataces

Orodes III

Vonones I

Artabanus III

Gotarzes II

Vardanes

Vonones II

Vologases I

Pacorus II

Artabanus IV

Pacorus II (restored)

Vologases II

Chosroes

Parthamaspates

Chosroes (restored)

Mithridates IV

Vologases III

Vologases IV

vacant

Vologases V

Artabanus V

Artavasdes

246-c. 211

c. 211-c. 191

c. 191-c. 176

c. 176-c. 171

c. 171-138

138-c. 128

c. 128-124/3

124/3-87 opposed by...

c. 91-78

? -78

76/7-70

70-58/7

58/7-57

57-37

37-c. 30 d. 2 BCE

c. 30-c. 29 d. c. 26

c. 29-c. 28 d. 2 BCE

c. 28-c. 26

c. 26-2

2 BCE-4 CE

4-6/7

6/7-11/2

11/2-38

38-51 opposed by...

c. 39-47 ?

51

51-78 d. 80 ?

78-79 d. 115

79-81

81-115 opposed by...

105/6 and then...

109/10 d. 128 ?

116

117-128 ?

128-147 ?

148-192 with...

191

192-207

207- ?

213-226

226-227


SASSANID

Ardashir I

Shapur I

Hormazd I

Bahram I

Bahram II

Bahram III

Narses

Hormazd II

Adarnarseh

Shapur II

Ardashir II

Shapur III

Bahram IV

Yazdegerd I

Khusrau the Usurper

Bahram V the Wild Ass

Yazdegerd II

Hormazd III

Firuz I

Balash

Kobad I

Jamasp

Kobad I (restored)

Khusrau I the Just

Hormazd IV

Khusrau II the Victorious

Bahram VI the Usurper

Khusrau II the Victorious (restored)

Kobad II

Ardashir III

Shahrbaraz the Usurper

Khusrau III

Juvansher

Boran

Gushnasbandeh

Azarmidurht

Hormazd V

Khusrau IV

Firuz II

Khusrau V

Yazdegerd III

To the Caliphate [Arabs] ....

To the Abbasid Caliphs [Arabs] ....

227-241

241-272

272-273

273-276

276-293

293

293-303

303-310

310

310-379

379-383

383-388

388-399

399-420

420

420-438

438-457

457

457-484

484-488

488-497 d. 531

497-499

499-531

531-579

579-590

590

590-591

591-628

628

628-630

630

630

630

630-631

631

631

631-632

632

632

632-633

633-649 d. 651

649-755

755-867



SAFFARID

Yaqub the Coppersmith

Amir I

Tahir

867-879

879-901

901-902 d. 908


An era of disunity follows, as competing local dynasts established spheres of influence from the 10th century onwards. From 900 to 999 the dominant power in the region was Bokhara, under the Samanids. From 1029 to 1194 the Seljuqs were supreme.

SELJUQ

Mahmud II

Toghril

Mas'ud

Malik Shah III

Mohammed II

Sulaiman Shah

Arslan Shah

Toghril III

1118-1131

1131-1134

1134-1152

1152-1153

1153-1160

1160-1161

1161-1176

1176-1194

 


From 1194 to 1221 the great regional power was Khwarazm.

Most Iranian locals become Mongol vassals

Most of Iran under direct Mongol rule

1221-1253

1253-1295


IL-KHANS (Mongol)

(Local Mongol authority under the Great Horde, followed by independent Khans.

Hulegu Khan

Abaqa

Teguder

Arghun

Gaikhatu

Baidu

Mahmud Ghazan

Oljeitu

Abu Sa'id

Arpa

Musa

Mohammad

Sati Beg (fem.)

Jahan Timur

Suleiman

1256-1265

1265-1282

1282-1284

1284-1291

1291-1295

1295

1295-1304

1304-1316

1316-1335

1335-1336

1336-1337 with...

1336-1338

1338-1339

1339-1340 with...

1339-1343

 


Another period of disunity, as remnants of the Hordes competed with local dynasts for authority. This era ends with the sweep of conquests by Timur Khan (known in Western Europe as Tamburlane).

 


TIMURID (Barlas Tribe)

Timur the Lame

Djalal Ud-Din Miran Shah

Khalil Sultan

Ayyal

Ailankar

Shah Rukh

Ulugh Beg

1380-1405

1405-1409

1409-1414

1414

1414-1415

1415-1447

1447-1449

 

A third period of fragmentation, as Timur's Empire loses cohesion and local rulers strive against each other.

 


QARA QOYUNLU

Jahan Shah

1458-1466

 

Yet a fourth era of fragmentation, followed by reunification under the Safavid Dynasty.

 


SAFAVID

Ismail I

Tahmasp I

Ismail II

Mohammed Khodabanda

Shah Abbas I

Safi

Abbas II

Suleiman

Shah Sultan Husein

Tahmasp II

Abbas II

1502-1524

1524-1576

1576-1578

1578-1581

1581-1629

1629-1642

1642-1667

1667-1694

1694-1722

1722-1732

1732-1736

 

AFSHARID

Nadir Shah

Adil

Shah Rukh

Ibrahim

1736-1747

1747-1748

1748-1749 d. 1755 with...

1748-1749

 

ZAND

Mohammad Karim Khan Zand

Abul Fath

Ali Murad

Sadiq

Ali Murad (restored)

Jafar

Luftf Ali

1750-1779

1779

1779 d. 1785

1779-1782

1782-1785

1785-1789

1789-1794

 

QAJAR

Aga Mohammad Shah

Baba Khan

Fath Ali Shah

Mohammed Shah

Nasir Ed-Din Shah

Muzaffar Ed-Din Shah

Mohammed Ali Shah

Ahmed Shah

1779-1797

1797

1797-1834

1834-1848

1848-1896

1896-1907

1907-1909

1909-1925 d. 1929

 

PAHLAVI

Reza

Anglo-Soviet occupation

Mohammed Reza

Theocratic State

1925-1941 d. 1944

1941-1946

1941-1979 d. 1980

1979

 

ISLAMIC REPUBLIC

Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini

Ayatollah Sayyed Ali Khamenei

1979-1989

1989- ?


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